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Memory Recall/Retrieval - Memory Processes - The Human MemoryINTRODUCTIONTYPES OF MEMORYMEMORY PROCESSESMEMORY DISORDERSMEMORY & THE BRAINSOURCES & REFERENCESMemory ProcessesIntroductionMemory EncodingMemory ConsolidationMemory StorageMemory Recall/RetrievalMEMORY RECALL/RETRIEVAL ??? Did You Know ???Memory recall appears to be state-dependent, at least to some extent.Studies have shown that, when material is learned under the influence of a drug or alcohol, for example, it is subsequently recalled better when in the same drug state than when sober.Similarly, individuals mempry to retrieve information more easily when it has the same emotional content as their tue emotional state, and when the emotional state at the time of retrieval is similar to the emotional state at the time of encoding.Recall or retrieval of memory refers to the subsequent re-accessing of events or information from the past, which have been previously encoded and stored in the brain.

In common parlance, it is known as remembering. During recall, the brain "replays" a pattern of neural activity that was originally generated in response to a particular event, echoing the brain's perception of the real parhs. In fact, there is no real solid distinction between the act of remembering and the act of thinking.These replays are not quite identical to the original, though - otherwise we would not know the difference between the genuine experience and the memory - but are mixed with an awareness of the current situation.

One corollary of this is that memories are not frozen in time, and new information and suggestions may become incorporated into old memories over time. Thus, remembering can be thought of as an act of creative reimagination.Because of the way memories are encoded pafts stored, memory recall is effectively an on-the-fly reconstruction of elements scattered throughout various areas of our brains. Memories are not stored in our brains like books on library shelves, or even as a collection of self-contained recordings or pictures or video clips, but may be better thought of as a kind of collage or a jigsaw puzzle, involving different elements stored in disparate parts of the brain linked together by associations and neural networks.

Memory retrieval therefore requires re-visiting the nerve pathways the brain formed when encoding the memory, and the strength of those pathways determines how quickly the memory can be recalled. Recall effectively returns a memory from long-term storage to short-term or working memory, where it can be accessed, in parrs kind of mirror image of the encoding process.

It is then re-stored back in long-term memory, thus re- consolidating and strengthening it.??? Did You Know ???Several studies have shown that both episodic and semantic memories can be better recalled when the same language is pzrts for both encoding and retrieval.For example, bilingual Russian immigrants to the United States can recall more autobiographical details of their early life when the questions and cues are presented in Russian than when they are questioned in English.The efficiency of human memory recall is astounding.

Most of what we remember is by direct retrieval, where items of information are linked directly a question or cue, rather than by the kind thw sequential scan a computer might use (which would require a systematic search through the entire contents of memory until a match is found). Other memories are retrieved quickly and efficiently by hierarchical inference, where a specific question is linked to a class or subset of information about which certain facts are known.

Also, the brain is usually able to determine in advance whether there is any point in searching memory for a particular fact (e.g. it instantly recognizes a question like �What is Socrates� telephone number?� as absurd in that no search could ever produce an answer).There are two main methods of accessing memory: recognition and recall.

Recognition is the association of an event or physical object with one previously experienced or encountered, and involves a process of comparison of information with memory, e.g.

recognizing a known face, true/false or multiple choice questions, etc. Recognition is a largely unconscious process, and the brain even has a dedicated face-recognition area, which passes information directly through the limbic areas to generate a sense of tthe, before linking up with the cortical path, where data about the person's movements and intentions are processed. Recall involves remembering a fact, event or object that is not currently physically present (in the sense of retrieving a representation, mental image or concept), and requires the direct uncovering of information from memory, e.g.

remembering the name of a recognized person, fill-in the blank questions, etc.Recognition is usually considered to be �superior� to recall (in the sense of being more effective), in that it requires cyes a single process rather than two processes. Recognition requires only a simple familiarity decision, whereas a full recall of an item from memory requires a two-stage process (indeed, this is often referred to as the two-stage theory of memory) in which the search and retrieval of candidate items from memory is followed by a familiarity decision where the correct information is chosen from the candidates retrieved.

Thus, recall involves actively reconstructing the information and requires the activation of all the neurons involved in the memory in question, whereas recognition only requires a relatively simple decision as to whether one thing among others has been encountered before.

Sometimes, however, even if a part of an object initially activates only a part the brain parts memory cues the neural network concerned, recognition may then suffice to activate the entire network.??? Did You Know ???Colour may have an effect on our mmeory to memorize something.People remember colour scenes better than black-and-white ones, although only if naturally (as opposed to falsely) coloured.In particular, warm colours, like red, yellow and orange, may help us to memorize things by increasing our level of attention (our ability to select from information available in the environment).

The more attention is focused on outside stimuli, the greater the likelihood of those stimuli being stored in long-term memory.In the 1980s, Endel Tulving proposed an alternative to the two-stage theory, which he called the theory of encoding specificity.

This cuues states that memory utilizes information both from the specific memory trace as well as from the environment in which it is retrieved. Because of its focus on the retrieval environment or state, encoding specificity takes into account context cues, and it also has some advantages over the two-stage theory as it accounts for the fact that, in practice, recognition is not actually always superior to recall.

Typically, recall is better when the environments are similar in both the learning ( encoding) and recall phases, suggesting that context cues are important. In the same way, emotional material is remembered more reliably in moods that match the emotional content of these memories (e.g.

happy people will remember more happy than sad information, whereas sad people will better remember sad than happy information).According to the levels-of-processing effect theory, another alternative theory of memory suggested by Fergus Craik and Robert Lockhart, memory recall of stimuli is also a function parte the depth of mental processing, which is in turn determined by connections with pre-existing memory, time spent processing the stimulus, cognitive effort and sensory input mode.

Thus, shallow processing (such as, typically, that based on sound or writing) leads to a relatively fragile memory trace that is susceptible to rapid decay, whereas deep processing (such as that based on semantics and meanings) results in a more durable memory trace. This theory suggests, then, that memory strength"Recollection" redirects here. For other uses, see Recollection (disambiguation).Recall in memory refers to the mental process of retrieval of information from the past.

Along with encoding and storage, it's one of the three core processes of memory. There are three main types of recall: free recall, cued recall and serial recall. Psychologists test these forms of recall as a way to study the memory processes of humans [1] and animals.

[2] Two main theories of the process of recall are the Two-Stage Theory and the theory of Encoding Specificity. Contents� 1 Theories� 1.1 Austin Simonson theory� 1.2 Encoding specificity� 2 History� 3 Types� 3.1 Free recall� 3.2 Cued recall� 3.3 Serial recall� 4 Neuroanatomy� 5 Factors that affect recall� 5.1 Fues 5.2 Motivation� 5.3 Interference� 5.4 Context� 5.5 State-dependent memory� 5.6 Gender� 5.7 Food consumption� 5.8 Physical activity� 5.9 Trauma and braain exposure� 6 Phenomena� 6.1 Mnemonics and cognitive strategies� 6.2 Tip-of-the-tongue� 6.3 Involuntary memory retrieval� 6.4 False memories� 6.5 Focal retrograde amnesia� 6.6 The Face Advantage� 7 In partz culture� 7.1 Total recall� 7.2 Amnesia� 8 Consequences of retrieval� 8.1 Retrieval can improve subsequent memory� 8.2 Retrieval can impair subsequent memory� 9 See also� 10 ReferencesTheories [ edit ] Austin Simonson theory [ edit ]The Austin Simonson theory states that the process of recall begins with a search and retrieval process, and then a decision or recognition process where the correct information is chosen from what has been retrieved.

In this theory, recognition only involves the latter of these two stages, or processes, and this is thought to account for the superiority of the recognition process over recall. Recognition only involves one process in which error or failure may occur, while recall involves two. [3] However, recall has been found to be superior to recognition in some cases, such as a failure to recognize words that can later be recalled.

[4] Encoding specificity [ edit ]The theory of encoding specificity finds similarities between the process of recognition and that of recall. The encoding specificity principle states that memory utilizes information from the memory trace, or the situation in which it was learned, and from the environment in which it is retrieved.

In other words, memory is improved when information available at encoding is also available at retrieval. For example, if one is to learn about a topic and study it in a specific location, but take their exam in a different setting, they would not have had as much of a successful memory recall as if they were in the location that they learned and studied the topic in. Encoding specificity helps to take into account context cues because of its focus on the retrieval environment, and it also accounts for the fact recognition may not brainn be superior to recall.

[4] History [ edit ]Philosophical questions regarding how people acquire knowledge about mmory world spurred the study of memory and learning.

[5] Recall is a major part of the study of memory and often comes into play in all research. For this reason, the main studies on memory in general will also provide a history to the study of recall. Hermann EbbinghausIn 1885, Hermann Ebbinghaus created nonsense syllables, combinations of letters that do not follow grammatical rules and have no meaning, to test his own memory. He would memorize a list of nonsense syllables and then test his recall me,ory that list over varying time periods.

He discovered that memory loss occurred rapidly over the first few hours or days, but showed a more steady, gradual decline over subsequent days, weeks, and months. Furthermore, Ebbinghaus discovered that multiple learning, over-learning, and spacing study times increased retention of information. [6] Ebbinghaus� research influenced much of the research conducted on memory and recall throughout the twentieth century.Frederic Bartlett was a prominent researcher in the field of memory during the mid-twentieth century.

He was a British experimental psychologist who focused on the memroy people made when recalling new information. One of his well known works was Remembering: A Study in Experimental and Social Psychology, brsin he published in 1932. He is well known for his use of North American Native folk tales, including The War of the Ghosts.

[7] He would provide participants in his study with an excerpt from a story and then asked them to recall it as accurately as partts could. [7] Retention intervals would vary from directly after reading the story to days later.

Bartlett found that people strive for meaning, by attempting to understand the overall meaning of the story. Since the folk tale included supernatural elements, people would rationalize them to make them fit better with their own culture.

Ultimately, Bartlett argued that the mistakes that the participants made could be attributed brakn schematic intrusions. [7] Their current sets of knowledge intruded on their accurately recalling the folk tale.In the 1950s there was a change in the overall study of memory that has come to be known as the cognitive revolution. This included new theories on how to view memory, often likening it to a computer processing model. Two important books influenced the revolution: Plans and Structures of Behavior by George Miller, Eugene Galanter, and Karl Pribram in 1960 and Cognitive Psychology by Ulric Neisser in 1967.

[5] Both provided arguments for an information-processing view of the human mind. Allen Newell and Herbert Simon constructed computer programs that simulated the thought processes people go through when solving different kinds of problems. [8]In the 1960s, interest in short-term memory (STM) increased. Before the 1960s, cuez was very little prats that studied the workings of short-term memory and rapid memory loss.

Lloyd and Margaret Peterson observed that when people parhs given a short list of words or letters and then are distracted and occupied with another task for few seconds, their memory for the list is greatly decreased. [5] The brain parts memory cues and Shiffrin (1973) created the short term memory model, which became the popular model for studying short term memory. [9]The next major development in the study of memory recall was Endel Tulving�s proposition parfs two kinds of memory: episodic and semantic.

Tulving described episodic memory as a memory about a specific event that occurred at a particular time and place, for example what you got for your 10th birthday. Semantic memories are abstract words, concepts, and rules stored in long-term memory. [10] Furthermore, Endel Tulving devised the encoding specificity principle in 1983, which explains the importance of the relation between the encoding of information and then recalling that information.

To explain further, the encoding specificity principle means that a person is more likely to recall information if the recall cues match or are similar to the encoding cues. [11]The 1960s also saw a development in the study of visual imagery and how it is recalled. This research was led by Allan Paivio, who found that the more image-arousing a word was the more likely it would be recalled in either free recall or paired associates.

[12]There has been a considerable amount of research into the workings of memory, and specifically recall since the 1980s. The previously mentioned research was developed and improved upon, and new research was and still is being conducted. Types [ edit ] Free recall [ edit ] Main article: Free recallFree recall describes the process in which a person is given a list of items to remember and then is tested by being asked to recall them in any order.

[5] Free recall often displays evidence of primacy and recency effects. Primacy effects are displayed when thhe person recalls items presented at the beginning of the list earlier and more often.

The recency effect is when the person recalls items presented at the end oSearch Options�� Any size� Large� Medium� Icon�� Any color� Full color� Black and white� Transparent�� Any type� Face� Photo� Clip art� Line drawing� Animated�� Any time� Past 24 hours� Past week�� Not filtered by license� Labeled for reuse with modification� Labeled for reuse� Labeled for noncommercial reuse with modification� Labeled for noncommercial reuseReset tools wisdom-square.comEye Accessing Cues728 ? 607 - 96k�-�pngslideplayer.comMemory Cues for Parts of the .960 ? 720 - 124k�-�jpgen.wikipedia.orgSpatial working memory[edit]2000 ? 1220 - 103k�-�png2012books.lardbucket.orgThe Biology of Memory1363 ? 1194 - 206k�-�jpgen.wikipedia.orgMemory320 ? 174 - 22k�-�gifen.wikipedia.orgDiagram of the different lobes .2000 ? 1295 - 487k�-�pngcatalog.flatworldknowl.The major brain parts are .1363 ? 1746 - 183k�-�jpgslideplayer.comTwo parts of the brain .960 ? 720 - 90k�-�jpgslideshare.net20.

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MEMORY PARTS� .728 ? 546 - 73k�-�jpg This book is licensed under a Creative Commons by-nc-sa 3.0 license. See the license for more details, but that basically means you can share this book as long as you credit the author (but see below), don't make money from it, and do make it available to everyone else under the same terms.This content was accessible as of December 29, 2012, and it was downloaded then by Andy Schmitz in an effort to preserve the availability of this book.Normally, the author and publisher would be credited here.

However, the publisher has asked for the customary Creative Commons attribution to the original publisher, authors, title, and book URI to be removed. Additionally, per the publisher's request, their name has been removed in some passages. More information is available on this project's attribution page.PDF copies of this book were generated using Prince, a great tool for making PDFs out of HTML and CSS. More details on the process are available in this blog post.For more information on the source of this book, or why it is available for free, please see the project's home page.

You can browse or download additional books there. You may also download a PDF copy of this book (46 MB) or just this chapter (4 MB), suitable for printing or most e-readers, or a .zip file containing this book's HTML files (for use in a web browser offline). Learning Objectives� Label and review the principles of encoding, storage, and retrieval.� Summarize the types of amnesia and their effects on memory.� Describe how the context in which we learn information can influence our memory of that information.Although it is useful to hold information in sensory and short-term memory, we also rely on our long-term memory (LTM).

We want to remember the name of the new boy in the class, the name of the movie we saw last week, and the material for our upcoming psychology test. Psychological research has produced a great deal of knowledge about long-term memory, and this research can be useful as you try to learn and remember new material (see Table 8.2 "Helpful Memory Techniques Based on Psychological Research").

In this section we will consider this question in terms of the types of processing that we do on the information we want to remember.

To be successful, the information that parfs want to remember must be encoded and stored, and then retrieved. Table 8.2 Helpful Memory Techniques Based on Psychological Research TechniqueDescriptionUseful exampleUse elaborative encoding.Material is better remembered if it is processed more fully.Think, for instance, �Proactive interference is like retroactive interference but it occurs in a forward manner.�Make use of the self-reference effect.Material is better remembered if it is linked to thoughts about the self.Think, for instance, �I remember a time when I knew the answer to an exam question but couldn�t quite get it to come to mind.

This was an example of the tip-of-the-tongue phenomenon.�Be aware of the forgetting curve.Information that we have learned drops off rapidly with time.Review the material that you have already studied right before the exam to increase the likelihood it will prats in memory.Make use of the spacing effect.Information is learned better when it is studied in shorter periods spaced over time.Study a little bit every day; do not cram at the last minute.Rely on overlearning.We can continue to learn even after we think cuew know the information perfectly.Keep studying, even if you think you already have it down.Use context-dependent retrieval.We have better retrieval when it occurs in the same rbain in which we learned the material.If thee, study under conditions similar to the conditions in which you will take the exam.Use state-dependent retrieval.We have better retrieval when we are in the same psychological state pars we were when we learned the material.Many possibilities, but don�t study under the influence of drugs or alcohol, unless you plan to use them on the day of the exam (which is not recommended). Encoding and Storage: How Our Perceptions Become MemoriesEncoding The process by which we place the things that we experience into memory.

is the process by which we place the things that we experience into memory. Unless information is encoded, it cannot be remembered. I�m sure you�ve been to a party where you�ve been introduced to someone and then�maybe only seconds later�you realize that you do not remember the person�s name.

Of course it�s not really surprising that you can�t remember the name, because you probably were distracted and you never encoded the name to begin with.Not everything we experience can or should be encoded. We tend to encode things that we braim to remember and not bother to encode things that are irrelevant. Look at Figure 8.8 "Pennies in Different Styles", which shows different images of U.S.

pennies. Can you tell which one is the real one? Nickerson and Adams (1979) Nickerson, S., & Adams, J. (1979). Long-term memory for a common object. Cognitive Psychology, 11(3), 287�307. found that very few of the U.S. participants they tested could identify the right one. We see pennies a lot, but we don�t bother to encode their features. Figure 8.8 Pennies in Different StylesCan you identify the �real� penny?

We tend to have poor memory for things that don�t matter, even if we see them frequently.One way to improve our memory is to use better encoding strategies. Some ways of studying are more effective than others. Research has found that we are better able to remember information if we encode it in a meaningful way. When we engage in elaborative encoding Learning by processing new information in ways that make it more relevant. we process new information in ways that make it more relevant or meaningful (Craik & Lockhart, 1972; Harris & Qualls, 2000).

Craik, I., & Lockhart, S. (1972). Levels of processing: A framework for memory research. Journal of Verbal Learning & Verbal Behavior, 11(6), 671�684; Harris, L., & Qualls, D. (2000). The association of elaborative or maintenance rehearsal with age, reading comprehension and verbal ;arts memory performance. Aphasiology, 14(5�6), 515�526.Imagine that you are trying to remember the characteristics of the different schools of psychology we discussed in Chapter 1 "Introducing Thee.

Rather than simply trying to remember the schools and their characteristics, you might try to relate the information to things you already know. For instance, you might try to remember the fundamentals of jemory cognitive school of psychology by linking the characteristics to the computer model. The cognitive school focuses on how information is input, processed, and retrieved, cued you might think about how computers do pretty much the same thing.

You might also try to organize the information into meaningful units. For instance, the brain parts memory cues might link the cognitive school to structuralism because both were concerned with mental cuex. You also might try to use visual cues to help you remember the information.

You might look at the image of Freud and imagine what he looked like as a child. That image might help you remember that childhood experiences were an important part of Freudian theory. Each person has his or her unique way of elaborating on information; the important thing is to try to develop unique and meaningful associations among the materials. Research Focus: Elaboration and MemoryIn an important study showing the effectiveness of elaborative encoding, Rogers, Kuiper, and Kirker (1977) Rogers, B., Kuiper, A., & Kirker, S.

(1977). Self-reference and pxrts encoding of personal information. Journal of Personality & Social Psychology, 35(9), 677�688. studied how people recalled information that they had learned under different processing conditions.

All the participants were presented with the same list of 40 adjectives to learn, but through the use of random assignment, the participants were given one of four different sets of instructions FavoriteFavoriting this resource allows you to save it in the �My Resources� tab of your account. There, you can easily access this resource later when you�re ready to customize it or assign it to your students. Memory Retrieval: Recognition and Recall Key Points� Retrieval cues can facilitate recall.

Cues are thought to be most effective when they have a strong, complex link with the information to be recalled.� Memories of events or items tend to be recalled in the same order in which they were experienced, so by thinking through a list or series of events, you can boost your recall of successive items.� The primacy and recency effects show that items near the beginning and end of a list or series tend to be remembered most frequently.� Retroactive interference is when new information interferes with remembering old information; proactive interference is when old information interferes with remembering new information.� The tip-of-the-tongue phenomenon occurs when an individual mejory almost recall a word but cannot directly identify it.

This is a type of retrieval failure; thd memory cannot be accessed, but certain aspects of nrain, such as the first letter or similar words, can.Terms� tip-of-the-tongue phenomenonThe failure to retrieve a word from memory combined with partial recall and the feeling that retrieval is imminent.� working memoryThe system that actively holds multiple pieces of information in the mind for execution of verbal and nonverbal tasks and makes them available for further information processing.� retrievalThe cognitive process of bringing stored information into consciousness. Memory retrieval is the process of remembering information stored in long-term memory.

Some theorists suggests that there are three stores of memory: sensory memory, long-term memory (LTM), and short-term memory (STM). Only data that is processed through STM and encoded into LTM can later be retrieved.

Overall, the mechanisms of memory are not completely understood. However, there are many theories concerning memory retrieval.There are two main types of memory retrieval: recall and recognition. In recall, the information must be retrieved from memories. In recognition, the presentation of a familiar outside stimulus provides a cue that the information has been seen before.

A cue might be an object or a scene�any stimulus that reminds a person of something related. Recall may be assisted when retrieval cues are presented that enable the subject to quickly access the information in memory. Patterns of�Memory RetrievalMemory retrieval can occur in several different ways, and there are many things that can affect it, such as how long it has been since the last time you retrieved the memory, what other information you have learned in the meantime, and many other variables.

For example, the spacing effect allows a person to remember something they have studied many times spaced over a longer period of time rather than all at once. The testing effect shows that practicing retrieval of a concept can increase the chance of remembering it.Some effects relate specifically to certain types of recall.

There are three main types of recall studied in psychology: serial recall, free recall, and cued recall. Serial RecallPeople tend to recall items or events in the order in which they occurred. This is called serial recall and can be used to help cue memories.

By thinking about a string of events or even words, it is possible to use a previous memory to cue the next item in the series. Serial recall helps a person to remember the order of events in his or her life.

These memories appear to exist on a continuum on which more recent events are more easily recalled.When recalling serial items presented as a list (a common occurrence in memory studies), two effects tend to surface: the primacy effect and the recency effect.

The primacy effect occurs when a participant remembers words from the beginning of a list better brqin the words from the middle or end. The theory behind this is that the participant has had more time to rehearse these words in working memory.

The recency effect occurs when a participant remembers words from the end of a list more easily, possibly since they are still available in short-term memory. Free RecallFree recall occurs when a person must recall many items but can recall them in any order. It is another commonly studied paradigm in memory research. Like serial recall, free recall is subject to the primacy and recency effects.

Cued RecallCues can facilitate recovery of memories that have been "lost." In research, a process called cued recall is used to study these effects. Cued recall psrts when a person is given a list to remember and is then given cues during the testing phase to aid in the retrieval of memories.�The stronger the link between the cue and the testing word, the better the participant will recall the words.

Interference with Memory RetrievalInterference occurs in memory when there is an interaction between the new material being learned and previously learned material. There are two main kinds of interference: proactive and retroactive.

Proactive InterferenceProactive interference is the forgetting of information due to interference from previous knowledge in LTM. Past memories can inhibit the encoding of new memories. Ths is particularly true if they are learned in similar contexts and the new information is similar to previous information. This is what is happening�when you have trouble remembering your new phone number because your old one is stuck in your head.

Retroactive InterferenceRetroactive interference occurs when newly learned information interferes with the tge or recall of previously learned information. If a participant was asked to recall a list of words, and was then immediately presented with new information, it could interfere with remembering the initial list.

If you learn to use a new kind of computer and then later have to use the old model again, you might find you have forgotten how to use it. This is due to retroactive interference.

Retrieval FailureSometimes a person is not able to retrieve a memory that they have previously encoded. This can be due to decay, a natural process that occurs when neural connections decline, like an unused muscle.Occasionally, a person will experience a specific type of retrieval failure called tip-of-the-tongue phenomenon. This is the failure to retrieve grain word from memory, combined with partial recall and the feeling that retrieval is imminent.

People who experience this can often recall one or more features of the target word such as the first letter, words that sound similar, or words that have a similar meaning. While this process is not completely understood, there are two theories as to why it occurs. The first is the direct-access perspective, which states that the memory is not strong enough to retrieve but strong enough to trigger the state.

The inferential perspective posits that the state occurs when the subject infers knowledge of the target word, but tries to piece together different clues about the word that are not accessible in memory. "PsycholARTSical: Psyched about the arts/Cognitive Views of Learning." Wikibooks CC BY-SA 3.0. Source: Boundless.

�Memory Retrieval: Recognition and Recall.� Boundless Psychology. Boundless, 26 May. 2016. Retrieved 24 Sep. 2016 from Subjects� Accounting� Algebra� Art History� Biology� Business� Calculus� Chemistry� Communications� Economics� Finance� Management� Marketing� Microbiology� Physics� Physiology� Political Science� Psychology� Sociology� Statistics� U.S.

History� World History� Writing Memory (Encoding, Storage, Retrieval)By Kathleen McDermott and Henry Roediger IIIWashington University in St. Louis�Memory�is a single term that reflects a number of different abilities: holdinginformation briefly while working with it (working memory), rememberingepisodes of one�s life (episodic memory), and our general knowledge of facts ofthe world (semantic memory), among other types. Remembering episodes involvesthree processes: encoding information (learning it, by perceiving it andrelating it to past knowledge), storing it (maintaining it over time), and thenretrieving it (accessing the information when needed).

Failures can occur atany stage, leading to forgetting or to having false memories. The key toimproving one�s memory is to improve processes of encoding and to usetechniques that guarantee effective retrieval. Good encoding techniques includerelating new information to what one already knows, forming mental images, andcreating associations among information that needs to be remembered. The key togood retrieval is developing effective cues that will lead the rememberer backto the encoded information.

Classic mnemonic systems, known since the time ofthe ancient Greeks and still used by some today, can greatly improve one�smemory abilities. Share this module to:Share this URL� Distinctiveness� Encoding� Episodic memory� Mnemonic devices� Recoding� Retrieval� StorageLearning Objectives� Define and note differences between the following forms of memory: working memory, episodic memory, semantic memory, collective memory.� Describe the three stages in the process of learning and remembering.� Describe strategies that can be used to enhance the original learning or encoding of information.� Describe strategies that can improve the process of retrieval.� Describe why the classic mnemonic device, the method of loci, works so well.IntroductionIn 2013, Simon Reinhard sat in front of 60 people in a room at Washington University, where he memorized an increasingly long series of digits.

On the first round, a computer generated 10 random digits�6 1 9 4 8 5 6 3 7 1�on a screen for 10 seconds. After the series disappeared, Simon typed them into his computer.

His recollection was perfect. In the next phase, 20 digits appeared on the screen for 20 seconds. Again, Simon got them all correct. No one in the audience (mostly professors, graduate students, and undergraduate students) could recall the 20 digits perfectly.

Then came 30 digits, jemory for 30 seconds; once again, Simon didn�t misplace even a single digit. For a final trial, 50 digits appeared on the screen for 50 seconds, and again, Simon got them all right. In fact, Simon would have been happy to keep going. His record in this task�called �forward digit span��is 240 digits! In some ways memory is like file drawers where you store mental information. Memory is also a series of processes: how does that information get filed to begin with and how does it get retrieved when needed?

[Photo: Jason Carpenter]When most of us witness a performance like that of Braij Reinhard, we think one of two things: First, maybe he�s cheating somehow. (No, he is not.) Second, Simon must have abilities more advanced than the rest of humankind. After all, psychologists established many years ago that the normal memory span for adults is about 7 digits, with some of us able to recall a few more and others a few less ( Miller, 1956).

That is why the first phone numbers were limited to 7 digits�psychologists determined that many errors occurred (costing the phone company money) when the number was increased to even 8 digits.

But in normal testing, no one gets 50 digits correct in a row, much less 240. So, does Simon Reinhard simply have a photographic memory?

He braib not. Instead, Simon has taught himself simple strategies for remembering that have greatly increased his capacity for remembering virtually any type of material�digits, words, faces and names, poetry, historical dates, and so on. Twelve years earlier, before he started training his memory abilities, he had a digit span of 7, just like most of us. Simon has been training his abilities for about 10 years as of this writing, and has risen to be in the top two of �memory athletes.� In 2012, he came in second place in the World Memory Championships (composed of 11 tasks), held in London.

He currently ranks second in the world, behind another German competitor, Johannes Mallow. In this module, we reveal what psychologists and others have learned about memory, and we also explain the general principles by which you can improve your own memory for factual material.

Varieties of Memory To be a good chess player you have to learn to increase working memory so you can plan ahead for several offensive moves while simultaneously anticipating - through use of memory - how the other player could counter each of your planned moves.

[Photo: D-Stanley]For most of us, remembering digits relies on short-term cuew, or working memory�the ability to hold information in our minds for a brief time and work with it (e.g., multiplying 24 x 17 without using paper would rely on working memory). Another type of memory is episodic memory�the ability to remember the episodes xues our lives.

If you were given the task of recalling everything you did 2 days ago, that would be a test of episodic memory; you would be required to mentally travel through the day in your mind and note the main events. Semantic memory is our storehouse of more-or-less permanent knowledge, such as the meanings of words in a language (e.g., the meaning of �parasol�) and the huge collection of patrs about the world (e.g., there are 196 countries in the world, and 206 bones in your body). Collective memory refers to the kind of memory that people in a group share (whether family, community, schoolmates, or citizens of a state or a country).

For example, residents of small towns often strongly identify with those towns, remembering the local customs and historical events in a unique way. That is, the community�s collective memory passes stories and recollections between neighbors and to future generations, forming a memory system unto itself.Psychologists continue to debate the classification of types of memory, as well as which types rely tthe others ( Tulving, 2007), but for this module we will focus on episodic memory.

Episodic memory is usually what people think of when they hear the word �memory.� For example, when people say that an older relative is psrts her memory� due to Alzheimer�s disease, the barin of memory-loss they are referring to is the inability to recall events, or episodic memory.

(Semantic memory is actually preserved in early-stage Alzheimer�s disease.) Although remembering specific events that have happened over the course of one�s entire life (e.g., memmory experiences in sixth grade) can be referred to as autobiographical memory, we will focus primarily on the episodic memories of more recent events. Three Stages of the Learning/Memory ProcessPsychologists distinguish between three necessary stages in the learning and memory process: encoding, storage, and retrieval ( Melton, 1963).

Encoding is defined as the initial learning of information; storage refers to maintaining information over time; retrieval is the ability to access information when you need it. If you meet someone for the first time at a party, you need to encode her name (Lyn Goff) while you associate her name with her face.

Then you need to maintain the information over time. If you see her a week later, you need to recognize her face and have it serve as a cue to retrieve her name.

Any successful act of remembering requires that all three stages be intact. However, two types of errors can also occur. Forgetting is one type: you see the person you met at the party and you cannot recall her name. The other error is misremembering (false recall or false recognition): you see someone who looks like Lyn Goff and call the person � About� Membership� Communities� Government Relations� Whole Child� Careers at ASCD� ASCD Job Ramp� Advertise� Sponsorship� News & Media� Annual Report� Governance� Books & Publications� Browse Books� New Books� Member Books� ASCD Arias� Bbrain Reference Guides� Newsletters� Inservice Blog� Meet the Authors� Write for ASCD� ASCD Books in Translation� Educational Leadership� Current Issue� Browse EL Archives� Digital EL� EL Magazine App� Subscribe� Write for EL� Tell Me About� Contact EL� Conferences & Events� Annual Conference� Conference on Teaching Excellence� Conference on Educational Leadership� Institutes� Leadership Institute for Legislative Advocacy� Leader to Leader Conference� Whole Child Symposium� Exhibit with Us� Professional Learning� PD Online� PD In Focus� ASCD myTeachSource� Consulting Services� Webinars� Videos� Teacher Leadership� Emerging Leaders� Topics� Brain & Learning� Differentiated Instruction� English Language Learners� Poverty & Equity� School Culture & Climate� Understanding by Design� Browse All Topics The past two decades have provided extraordinary progress in our understanding of the nature of learning.

Never before have neuroscience and classroom instruction been so closely linked. Because advances in technology enable us to view the working brain as it learns, educators can now find evidence-based neuroimaging and brain-mapping studies to determine the most effective ways to teach. Brain Plasticity and PruningLearning causes growth of brain cells.

For a long time, scientists held a misconception about brain growth: they believed it stopped at birth and was followed by a lifetime of brain cell death. Now we know that although most of the neurons where information is stored are present at birth, there is lifelong growth of the support and connecting cells that enrich the communication between neurons.

These dendrites sprout from the arms (axons) or the cell body of the neuron. Dendrites increase in size and number in response to learned skills, experience, and information. New dendrites grow as branches from frequently activated neurons. This growth is stimulated by proteins called neurotrophins. Nerve growth factor is one of these neurotrophins. Although the brain measurements of neurotrophins are highest during childhood (when the brain's connecting cells are undergoing their greatest growth and development), as students continue to learn, neurotrophin activity is elevated the brain parts memory cues the brain regions tye for new learning (Kang, Shelton, Ches, & Schuman, 1997).Once these dendrites are formed, the brain's plasticity allows it to reshape and reorganize the networks mmemory dendrite-neuron connections in response to increased or decreased use of these pathways (Giedd et al., 1999).Examples of brain plasticity have been noted when people repeatedly practice activities controlled by memorh of their visual, motor, sensory, or coordination systems for specialized learned activities.

Blind people who read Braille have significantly larger somatosensory cortexes, where the sense of touch in their right fingers is processed. Similarly, violin players who use the fingers of their left braiin to do the complicated movements along the strings have larger somatosensory regions in the area of their parietal lobe associated with the fingers of the left hand.A 2004 pzrts in Nature found that people who learned how to juggle increased the amount of gray matter in their occipital lobes (visual memory areas).

When they stopped practicing the juggling, the new gray matter vanished. A similar structural change appears to occur fues people who learn�and then don't practice�a second language. The decrease in connecting dendrites and other supporting brain connecting cells that are not used is braiin pruning. The loss of native language ability, juggling skills, or learned academic material that is not practiced is the flip side of the brain's growth response to learning. It is the �use it or lose it� phenomenon.

The process is bain �pruning� because the brain pathways and connections that are used regularly are maintained and �hard-wired,� while others are eliminated, or pruned.Pruning. Just as hedges are pruned to cut off errant shoots that don't communicate with many neighboring leaves, the brain prunes its own inactive cells. By the time we enter adolescence, our brain has chosen most of the final neurons it will keep throughout our adult life based on which cells are used and which are not.Neurons are pruned when they are not used.

Active cells require blood to bring nourishment and clear away waste, but cells that are inactive don't send messages to the circulatory system to braih blood. (The brain cells receive circulation not from blood, as seen in the rest of the body, but rather from a colorless, filtered form of meemory called cerebral spinal fluid.) This reduced blood flow means that calcium ions accumulate around the cell and are not washed away.

This build-up of calcium ions triggers the secretion of the enzyme calpain, which causes cells to self-destruct.To think about pruning in terms of brain cell growth, consider first the astonishing development of the embryonic brain that by week four is producing half a million neurons every minute. During the next several weeks these cells travel to what will become the brain and begin to form branching axons and dendrites. The synaptic junctions that are present at each connection between neuron, dendrite, or axon reach a maximum development rate of two million per second.

This plethora of neurons and neuronal connections is pruned in the last few weeks before birth. The orphaned neurons that did not form connections with neighboring cells die off, and only the neurons that are in networks remain and become differentiated into circuits with specific functions (Sowell, Peterson, & Thompson, 2003).After birth, the brain's gray matter has another growth spurt, with increased gray matter and connections reaching a maximum density at about age 11.

This growth is patts by another pruning phase (Seeman, 1999), when unused and unnecessary memory circuits are broken down. If this second pruning phase did not take place, there would be too many crowded circuits in the brain for it to be efficient�just as a computer with lots of data would take longer to turn on because all the data must be activated before the computer can be used.The more ways something is learned, the more memory pathways are built.

This brain research discovery is part of the reason for the current notion that stimulating the growth of more dendrites prts synaptic connections is one of the best things teachers can learn to do for the brains of their students.When children are between the ages of 6 and 12, their neurons grow more and more synapses that serve as new pathways for nerve signals. This thickening of gray matter (the branching dendrites of the neurons and the synaptic connections they form) is accompanied by thickening in the brain's white matter (fatty myelin sheaths that insulate the axons carrying information away from the neuron and making the nerve-signal transmissions faster and more efficient).

As the brain becomes more efficient, the less-used circuits are pruned away, but the most frequently used connections become thicker, with more partz coating making them more efficient (Guild, 2004). Helping Students Grow More Brain ConnectionsIn the classroom, the more ways the bfain to be learned is introduced to the brain and reviewed, the more dendritic pathways of access will be created.

Pwrts will be more synaptic hhe bridges, and these pathways will be used more often, become stronger, and remain safe from pruning.For example, offering the information visually will set up a connection with the occipital lobes (the posterior lobes of the brain that process optical input). Subsequently or simultaneously having studentshear the information will hook up a dendritic circuit with the temporal lobes (the lob

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